Nile River MapThe Nile River Map
l, the longest river in the world, called the father of African rivers. Here's a map of the Nile River. Blue and White Nile are marked in their respective colors. Lake Tana in the highlands of Ethiopia is the source of the Blue Nile.
class="mw-headline" id="Etymology_and_names">Etymologie und Namen
Most of the river's northerly part runs northward through the Sudanesian Sahara to Egypt, ends in a large river valley and ends in the Mediterranean Sea. Since antiquity, Egypt's civilisation and the Buddhist empires have been dependent on the river. The majority of Egypt's inhabitants and towns are located along these parts of the Nile Valley just north of Aswan, and almost all the old Egypt's culture and history is along the banks.
The Nile is named en-N?l in Arabic, while it is named en-N?l in standard Arabic. It is also referred to in the Coptic: www.bibl, p (h)iaro; in Ancient Egypt: ?'p? and Jtrw; and in Hebrew: ????????, Ha-Ye'or or or ??????????, Ha-Shi?or. The Nile, with a length of 6,853 km between Lake Victoria and the Mediterranean Sea, is the longest river on the entire Continent of Africa.
Its catchment area is 3,254,555 km², about 10% of the area of Africa. The Nile basin is intricate, and therefore derivation at a particular point along the main stem is dependent on many determinants, among them meteorology, diversion, vaporization and evaporation, and ground water current.
The Nile above Khartoum is also known as the White Nile, a concept that to a lesser extent also describes the section between Lake No and Khartoum. In Khartoum the river is connected by the Blue Nile. White Nile begins in East Africa and Blue Nile begins in Ethiopia.
They are both located on the west flank of the East African Rift. Sometimes the Nile spring is regarded as Victoria Sea, but the water of the Nile is of great outflow. Kagera River, which joins Victoria Sea near the Tanzanian city of Bukoba, is the longest inflow, although the springs do not coincide, which is the longest inflow of the Kagera River and thus the most remote spring of the Nile itself.
18 ] It is either the Ruvyironza that originates in the province of Bururi, Burundi, or the Nyabarongo that runs out of the Nyungwe wood in Rwanda. The two tributaries converge at the Rusumo Falls on the Rwanda-Tanzania boundary. During 2010, an exploratory group went to a place described as the Rukarara tributary source, and by chopping a trail on precipitous hillsides in the Nyungwe woods suffocated by the jungles, a considerable influx of surfaces was found (in the arid season) over many kilometers up stream, and a new spring was found that gave the Nile a length of 6,758 km (4,199 mi).
Nile River leaving lake Nyanza (Victoria) at Ripon Falls near Jinja, Uganda, as Victoria Nile. For 130 kilometres it runs in a northerly direction to the Kyoga Sea. Part of the river, about 200 kilometres long, begins on the eastern shore of the pond and runs westwards to just below the Masindi harbour, where the river runs northwards, then makes a semicircle eastwards and northwards to the Karuma Falls.
The rest of the river runs west through Murchison Falls until it arrives at the north bank of Albertsee, where it creates an important river tributary. Although the sea itself lies on the DR Congo boundary, the Nile is not a river at this point.
The river runs further through Uganda to the west and is called the Albert Nile. Nile River runs from Nimule to Southern Sudan, where it is known as Bahr al Jabal ("Mountain River"). A little bit southern of the city is the junction with the river Achwa.
Bahr al Ghazal, itself 716 kilometres long, adjoins Bahr al Jabal at a small lake named Lake No, whereupon the Nile of the white clays floating in its water becomes known as Bahr al Abyad or White Nile. If the Nile is flooded, it will leave a large muddy sediment that will fertilise the soils.
Since the Aswan Dam was completed in 1970, the Nile has no longer flooded Egypt. From the section Bahr al Jabal of the Nile an anabranched river runs, the Bahr el Zeraf, and leads again into the White Nile. Mean White Nile River current at Lake Kawaki Malakal, just below the Sobat River, is 924 m3/s ( 32,600 cu ft/s); October surge current is approximately 1,218 m3/s ( 43,000 cu ft/s) and April minimal current is approximately 609 m3/s ( 21,500 cu ft/s).
The White Nile accounts for between 70 and 90 per cent of the Nile's overall discharges during the drought period (January to June). Beneath Renk the White Nile joins Sudan, flowing northwards towards Khartoum and meeting the Blue Nile. The river discharges in the northern part of Sudan into Lake Nasser (known as Lake Nubia in Sudan), which is mostly located in Egypt.
Beneath the Aswan Dam, on the northerly border of Lake Nasser, the Nile takes its historical course back. The Nile is divided northerly from Cairo into two twigs (or distributors) that supply the Mediterranean: the Rosetta twig to the west and the Damietta to the west, which form the Nile delta. Beneath the junction with the Blue Nile, the Atbara River, about half way to the ocean, which comes from Ethiopia just to the north of Lake Tana and is about 800 kilometres long, is the only large affluent.
In Ethiopia the Atbara only runs when it rains and dehydrates very quickly. The river meets the Nile about 3 kilometres from Khartoum. Throughout its annual lifecycle, the Blue Nile River fluctuates greatly and is the major contributor to the great variations of the Nile Current.
Outflow of the Blue Nile during the drought period can be as high as 113 cubic metres per second (4,000 cu ft/s), although dykes downstream control the river flows. In the rainy period, the Blue Nile often reaches a maximum current of 5,663 cubic meters per second (200,000 cu ft/s) at the end of August (a differential of a multiple of 50).
Prior to the construction of embankments along the river, the annual runoff at Aswan was 15 times higher. Peak currents of over 8,212 m3/s ( 290,000 cu ft/s) peaked in end-August and early September, and min currents of around 552 m3/s ( 19,500 cu ft/s) peaked in end-April and early May.
Bahr al Ghazal and the Sobat River are the two most important White Nile outflows. With 520,000 km2, the catchment area of Bahr al Ghazal is the biggest of the partial reservoirs of the Nile, but with around 2 cubic metres per second (71 cu ft/s) per year it provides relatively little irrigation, as enormous amounts of irrigation in the Sudd humid areas are wasted.
Yellow Nile is a former affluent that linked the Ouaddaï highlands of east Chad with the Nile valley around 8000 to 1000 B.C. Its remnants are known as Wadi-Howar. Through Gharb Darfur near the Chad polar fringe, the wave leads to the Nile near the south tip of the Great Loop.
Today's Nile is at least the fifth river to flow from the Ethiopian highlands to the south. With the help of satellites, arid water courses were identified in the western Nile River area. Eonile cannyon, today populated by superficial float, depicts an ancient Nile named Eonile, which flows during the later Miocene (23-5. 3 million years before the present).
The Nile reduced its course to the new baseline levels during the Mesinean salt flat depression of the Miocene, when the Mediterranean Sea was a self-contained reservoir and vaporized so far that it was empty or almost empty, until it was several hundred meters below the global oceans at Aswan and 2,400 meters below Cairo.
Eventually the sediment lifted the river bed so far that the river could flow over to the west into a hollow to form the Moerissee. The Tanganyika Lake dewatered north into the Nile until the Virunga volcanoes obstructed its way into Rwanda. Much longer at that period, the Nile with its widest springs in the north of Zambia.
A number of separated enclosed mainland basin each occupy one of the main parts of the Sudanese trench system: Myllut Riss, White Nile Riss, Blue Nile Riss, Atbara Riss and Sag El Naam Riss. 44 ] The Mellut River Basin is almost 12 kilometres in depth at its centre.
It is possible that this crack is still actively fissured, with recorded structural activities at the north and south borders. Suddsümpfe, which constitute the main part of the pool, can still be reduced. Although the White Nile is flatter than the Bahr el Arabian system, it is about 9 kilometres (5.6 miles) deeper.
Geo-physical survey of the Blue Nile Rift system estimates sediment depht at 5-9 kilometres (3.1-5.6 mi). Nile is linked to the Sudanese Nile, which covers the source area of Ethiopia and the equator during the present phases of active tectonics in the eastern, middle and Sudanese trench systems.
During the rainy seasons, which took place about 100,000 to 120,000 years ago, the river Atbara flooded its enclosed basins. During the 70.000-80.000 years B.P. Nassperiode the Blue Nile joined with the Central Nile. Until the Victoria Nile was linked to the principal system around 12,500 years ago, the white Nile system in Bahr El Arab and White Nile Rifts stayed a self-contained sea.
Nile was also a comfortable and effective means of transport for humans and goods. Nile was an important part of old Egypt spiritually. Nile was seen as a way from living to die and to the hereafter. Thus all the graves were located westwards of the Nile, for the Egyptians thought that in order to reach the hereafter they had to be laid to rest on the side that symbolised Death. 1872.
He orbited the sea and corroborated Speke's 1875 observation. Since they had neglected to enter the humid regions of Southern Sudan, the headwaters of the Nile were largely unfamiliar to the Greeks and Romans. Different explorations could not identify the river's spring. During Ptolemy II Philadelphus, Ptolemy II reported that a soldier's mission had invaded the Blue Nile River far enough to find that the summers were due to strong rains in the Ethiopian highlands, but no antique Europeans are known to have arrived at the Lake Tana.
Tabula Rogeriana represented the spring in 1154 as three seas. The Europeans had been living in Ethiopia since the end of the fifteenth millennium, and one of them could have gone there even sooner without writing a trail. In their 1565 commemorative books, the Portugese João-Bermudas publish the first descriptions of the Tis Issat Falls in comparison to the Nile Falls referred to in Ciceros De Republica.
54 ] Jerónimo Lobo delineates the spring of the Blue Nile, which is visited just after Pedro Páez. White Nile was even less comprehended. Elders wrongly thought that the Niger River constituted the headwaters of the White Nile. Pliny the Elder, for example, said that the Nile had its origin "in a hill of lower Mauritania", that it " flew above earth for many days", then went below the earth, again emerged as a great sea in the Masaesyli areas, then fell below the wilderness again to "flow below the earth for 20 nights until it reached the next Ethiopians.
In 1858, a map of Nilc Victoria was first seen by Europeans when John Hanning Speke, a UK discoverer, arrived at his south bank while travelling with Richard Francis Burton to discover mainland Africa and localise the Great Seas. In the belief that he had found the spring of the Nile when he first saw this "vast open space of water", Speke gave the name to the pond after the then Queen of the United Kingdom.
Burton, who recovered from the disease and rested further South on the shore of Lake Tanganyika, was indignant that Speke alleged to have proven his discoveries to be the real spring of the Nile when Burton thought it was still uninhabited. UK discoverer and missions man David Livingstone went too far westwards, entering the Congo River system instead.
Finally, it was the Welsh-American discoverer Henry Morton Stanley who corroborated Speke's findings, circled Lake Victoria, and reported on the great runoff to Ripon Falls on the lake's north bank. The Laird Shipyard of Liverpool sent an ice liner to the Nile in the 1830s. When the Suez Canal was completed and Egypt was taken over by the United Kingdom in the 1870s, further river steamships followed.
Nile is the region's navigational canal, providing steamship links to Khartoum and Sudan. Khartoum's siege was broke with specially constructed star wheelers dispatched from England and evaporated up the river to recapture the town. This was followed by steamboat trips on the river. Flussdampfer with English armed forces in Egypt in the First World and in the interwar years offered the pyramids and Thebes both safety and visit.
The majority of steamships have been decommissioned, but state-of-the-art diesels stay on the river. Nile runs through Cairo, the Egyptian capitol. The Nile towns Khartoum, Aswan, Luxor (Thebes) and the agglomeration Gizeh - Cairo belong to it. Cataracts nearest the estuary of the river is located in Aswan, just south of the Aswan Dam.
That part of the river is a frequent touristic destination with cruiseships and traditionally wood sailboats known as felukks. In 1955-1957, H.A.W. Morrice and W.N. Allan conducted a computer simulated survey to design the Nile's economical evolution for the Ministry of Hydropower of the Republic of Sudan Morrice was their hydrological consultant, and Allan his forerunner.
Headed by Hendrik Coetzee, a citizen of the Republic of South Africa, the White Nile Express travelled the whole length of the White Nile, some 3,700 kilometers (2,300 miles). Expeditions began on 17 January 2004 at the beginning of the White Nile at Lake Victoria in Uganda and reached Rosetta four and a half month later in the Mediterranean Sea.
On April 30, 2005, a South African headed Peter Meredith and Hendrik Coetzee navigation crew, again following in John Goddard's steps, crossed the main distant spring of the White Nile, the Akagera River, which begins as Ruvyironza in Bururi Province, Burundi, and ends at Lake Victoria in Uganda.
Ascend the Nile expedition in April 2006 with two discoverers from Great Britain and one from New Zealand climbed the river from the Rosetta estuary to one of its springs in the Nyungwe Forest in Rwanda. For 70 whole day the team around Cam McLeay, Neil McGrigor and Garth MacIntyre travelled to the Rwandan spring of the Nile with a length of about 6800km.
They were attacked during the course of the mission by the LRA (Lord's Resistance Army) led by the infamous Joseph Kony, but after the mission they came back six month later to finish the mission. With the help of GPS, they measure the length of the river and claim to have found the farthest well. Controversies arose due to the non-scientific nature of their exposure, their reticence in releasing GPS information, and the fact that they did not measure the other applicant for the real Nile spring in Burundi.
Accompanied by Pasquale Scaturro and his associate, Gordon Brown, a keen sea-kayak enthusiast and documentarist, the Blue Nile Express was the first to descent the Blue Nile from Lake Tana in Ethiopia to the Mediterranean Sea of Alexandria. Although their voyage encompassed others, Brown and Scaturro were the only ones to make the whole itinerary.
Following bridge crosses the Blue Nile and connects Khartoum with Khartoum North: Following viaducts crossing the White Nile and connecting Khartoum with Omdurman: Following viaducts crossing Omdurman: with Khartoum North: Nile River runs through Cairo, where it contrasts old habits of everyday living with the contemporary town.
Below you will find an Annotated bibliography of the most important documentary material for the study of the Nile. In 1589 a Jesuit emissary was sent from Goa to Ethiopia and stayed there until his demise in 1622. He was the first Europeans to see the Blue Nile spring, which he described in this work.
This is one of the most important and early resources about Ethiopia and the Nile. A Jesuit pastor, Jerónimo Lobo (1595-1687) spent 9 years in Ethiopia, mainly in Tigre, travelling to Lake Tana and the Blue Nile and arriving in the Damot area. Lobo is, after Pais, the second Europeans to describe the Blue Nile springs, more precisely "Bruce" (translated by Henze).
"Bruce was one of the first westerner to look for the Nile's spring, and the outcome of his journeys was a great gain in understanding geographical and ethnographic knowledge" (cf. Cox II, p. 389). By November 1770 he had arrived at the Blue Nile spring, and although he recognised that the White Nile was the greater river, he maintained that the Blue Nile was the Nile of the elders and thus the explorer of its well.
Travel in Ethiopia over the Second Act of the Nile; exhibition of the state of this country and its various inhabitants under the reign of Mohammed Ali; and illustration of the antiquities, art and histories of the ancient kingdom of Meroe, G. A. Hoskins. This is the first known British travel guidebook to the Lower Nile Basin.
Richard Burton's demonstration of his quest with John Speke. In the end, Burton's vision of the Nile's springs collapsed and Speke's asserted himself. There he was the first to tell about the Baringo Lake and the observation of the snow-covered Kilimanjaro. 1859 he went back to England where he met John Speke and organised an exhibition to find the Nile well.
Previously Speke had undertaken an exploration with Sir Richard Burton under the patronage of the India authorities, during which Speke was persuaded that he had found the Nile well. Spectacularly, Speke embarked on another quest which was told here in the presence of Captain Grant. In the course of this voyage he not only provided further proof of his findings, but also made ( later Sir ) Samuel and Florence Baker.
When he discovered the Nile spring pool, he managed to solve the problems of all time; he and Grant were the first Europeans to traverse Equatorial East Africa and collect for the whole earth a vast amount of information about 800 km of a previously completely unfamiliar part of East Africa.
Nile River. Archives from the Genuine on April 29, 2015. Amazon Longer Than Nile River, scientists say, filed on August 15, 2012 at the Wayback Machine. "Striving for cooperation in the Nile water conflicts. Archives (PDF) from the originals on 27 September 2011. What is the Blue Nile and the White Nile?
Archives from the originals on 8 March 2017. Nile. "The Nile § Name". Holy Nile Rose Fleur. Nile. Archives from the originals on 8 March 2013. "Nile". The Nile River. The Nile Basin Initiative. Archives from the orginal on 2 September 2010. On 27 May 2012, the environmental information portal archives on the Wayback Machine.
"Truth about the fountain of the R. Nile." Archives from the originals on April 9, 2011. Nile River. Archives from the originals on 10 January 2007. Nils' Real Spring". Archives from the originals on 1 June 2013. Described in Joanna Lumleys Nile, 19.00 to 20.00, ITV, Sunday, August 12, 2011.
Voyage to the Well of the Nile. Archives from the orginal on 3 May 2012. Go to Egypt's task: Ethiopia and the Nile Archives on December 9, 2013 at the Wayback Machine. "Nile Basins |Band 1 The Blue Nile and Akbara and Main Nile to Assuan Hydraulics, with some references to Nile Inspection projects |Paper 12" (PDF).
Archives (PDF) from the originals on 26 July 2011. Nile Hydraulics (PDF). Archives from the Genuine (PDF) on November 24, 2010. Egypt Dust Plume, Red Sea Filed on February 22, 2014 at the Wayback Machine. "Romance System for Amharic Archives February 13, 2013 at the Wayback Machine."....
Blue Nile River, Africa. Archives from the originals on August 1, 2017. Archives from the originals on April 15, 2017. Item no. 1-4020-0866-X. ; filed on Google Books on November 14, 2012 at the Wayback Machine. Sobat River. "into the Gulf of Sirt during the Miocene?
Georgiological development of the Nile. Development of the Nile Basin. Sahara and Nile. "Nile development, Sudan's underground salt trench lakes." Sudan split basin. Anthem to the Nile. S. Whiteway, Publisher and Interpreter, The Portuguese Expedition to Abyssinia in 1441-1543, 1902.
Item no. 1-4020-0866-X. ; filed on Google Books on November 14, 2012 at the Wayback Machine. Big Cañal to Chang Course of Nile River" Archives on September 5, 2015 at the Wayback Machine.... The Nile Basin Initiative Archives at the Wayback Machine on June 27, 2007. "Egyptians and their thirsty neighbours are able to cross the Nile."
Archives from the originals on 27 September 2011. National Geographic published a movie about the 2005 Longest Riverxpedition. They told their adventures with an IMAX and two portable cameras and told their stories in the 2005 IMAX movie Mistery of the Nile and in a novel of the same name.
"Nile as I have seen it". Nile in post-colonial times: Inter-country conflicts and cooperation in the Nile Basin (I.B. Tauris, 2010) 293 pages; study of the river's limited natural resource sharing by several countries in the post-colonial period; including research by scientists from Burundi, Congo, Egypt, Ethiopia, Kenya, Rwanda, Sudan, Tanzania and Uganda.
Commons Wikimedia has created medias related to the Nile. Commons Wikimedia has created medias related to the Nile.