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It' s Not What You Say, L'une des bonnes choses à propos des États-Unis est que, où que vous alliez, les gens parlent la même langue. New Yorkers can move to San Francisco, Houston or Milwaukee and still be heard by everyone they encounter. Or as a New York-born man could say: "Wrong!

" Although English is spoken by native speakers across the nation, the way they let others know what they say - whether they' re kind, ironical or impolite - can be very different. Well, I'm not talking about the two facets of the speech that everyone realizes and about which many folks speak: stress and lexicon.

Much has been said about the New York accentuation of vocals (cawfee), the omission of some r's (toidy-toid street) and the use of others (Linder Ronstadt). There are other facets of speech that humans don't realize because it seems so naturally - when you begin and stop speaking; how quickly you speak; how you use pitches, volume, tones, rhythms; what the "point" is and how you reach it; what you speak about, when and with whom.

In perceiving these facets of speaking, they are not attributed to linguistic customs, but to the speaker's personalities, which New Yorkers, for example, perceive as noisy and intrusive. What influence do they have on the way how humans speak and hear? Sociolinguistic, I want to know how culture affects the way how humans speak and hear.

I' m from New York City and lived in Berkeley, California, and many of the discussions I've recorded and analysed relate to New Yorkers speaking to Californians. I' ve found that New York Jews have a way of speaking that often has an effect (a good one) when used together, and another effect (not so good) when used with others.

Obviously, some New Yorkers who do not come from Eastern Europe speak, as do those who are neither New York nor Jew. There are many, however, who do enough to explain the bad stereotypes, and enough for many when I speak about these symptoms to respond with a very noisy" aha" and a sighs of easement to say that this is something that has been causing them problems for a long while.

The New Yorkers seem to think the best thing two can do is speak. Stillness is fine when you watch a film ('though it might be better interrupted by smart side notes), or when you sleep ('collect your dream to tell when you're awake'), but when two or more folks get together, it's better to speak.

That' s why we like to chat with foreigners - especially when we're not with them for long, for example in an elevators or on a bench. That often makes non-New Yorkers think we're trying to do more than just begin a dialogue. He' d just come in from New York. For most non-New Yorkers who are in the audible zone of other people, it's good to act as if they didn't overhear.

Many New Yorkers, however, find it wonderful to make a pertinent remark. But there was something else about our talk that made it enticing for a New Yorker to interfere: the fact that my boyfriend complained. One Californian who came to New York once said that he found the New Yorkers unkind when he tried to have a relaxed talk.

So I asked him what he was discussing. A New Yorker wouldn't talk to a foreigner about the wheather unless it was really awful. In this way the individual is greeted in a small group. There are many ways New Yorkers can be kind enough to scare off non-New Yorkers, such as the way we ask them.

We like to show interest by asking someone about it. We often ask "machine guns questions": quickly, with abnormally high or low pitches, in truncated forms and often right at the end of a movement or even in the midst of it.

A talk I recorded between a New York man (Diane) and a man from Los Angeles (Chad) who had just bumped into each other will show what I mean: You' re living in L.A.? Are you here to visit? What are you doing? Are you an artiste? Writers? and Chad gives minimum, even one-syllable responses.

Diane wouldn't ask all the answers. She' tried to show interest and get Chad to talk. But as a kind character, she kept trying to do more of what deterred him. Diane's intonations, high pitches and truncated shape would have betrayed the other New Yorkers:

" Chad wasn't used to such things. And he was deterred by the pace at which Diane's questioning came up to him. New Yorkers who do not come from New York often criticize New Yorkers for interrupting them, not listening and not giving them an opportunity to do so. Usually the New Yorker begins to speak before the Californian is through.

Who' s to say only one man can speak at a cradle? More than one people often speak in a really good New York interview. During the talks I have recorded and analysed, New Yorkers interrupt a speaker's speech with commentary, responses and questioning (often requiring exactly the information that will come).

Neither of which makes the New York orator stop. Quite the opposite, he speaks even more loudly, more quickly and has even more pleasure, because he does not really talk alone. If a non-New Yorker ceases to speak at the first token of the New Yorker's attendance, the one who causes the disruption and turns a perfect meant co-operative overlap into a fuselage of conversations.

In the two and a half hour interview from which the example of Diane/Chad comes, I had been hoping to analyse the style of all six present, but there was no moment when non-New Yorkers spoke to each other without the New Yorkers saying anything. It was mainly because the non-New Yorkers were expecting a certain break before they began to speak, but before this break came, a New Yorker began to think that there was an awkward stillness, and was kind enough to fill it with whisper.

Then they' re building a big high-rise there? No. Where was that? From Columbus Circuit? District of Columbus? Many of the conversations mentioned above often involve two or three persons speaking at the same moment. The Huntington Hartford Museum," Peter says almost the same thing.

that they' re both mistaken. When he listened to the film later, Peter confessed that he really had no clue what Kurt was saying; he hadn't been living in New York since high-school and was feeling very uncomfortable in that interview. When he thought Diane should know, he simply said the same thing she said and started a second later so he could listen to what she said and it echoed.

It is not necessary to know what you are speaking about to take part in such a discussion; it is not only necessary, but also enough to know what kind of comments you need to make when and how quickly. New York listeners speak a great deal. That'?s what gets me when New Yorkers and non-New Yorkers get together.

This is a dilemma my older brother and sisters have had in New York City but haven't been living here in seventeen years. There are few ways of entertaining New Yorkers as popular as storytelling. The New Yorkers often use drama and mimicry, changing the pitches of their vocals or imitating the characters they quote.

One Midwesterner, who worked in New York for several years, had a local boyfriend who liked to tell him tales as they walked down the road. A New Yorker can't run and tell a good tale at the same one. Having observed many lessons of conversations and analyzed tapes of many more, I am confident that the New York conversational styles grow out of the wish to engage with other human beings, and they seem to be a natural way for New Yorkers to be a good one.

Individuals from different ethnical and societal background have different discussion patterns, which they take for granted. There are some folks who are waiting longer than others before they have the feeling that it is appropriate to begin speaking. Many consider it courteous to speak quieter, to keep their voicing flat, to keep their faces and faces in control and to speak about different subjects.

They may try to alter their conversation styles as some New Yorkers have tried to alter their accent - probably with a similarly mended effect. If you think someone else is done speaking, you can learn to number three. A Metropolitan New York Vocalic Paradigm's inner dynamics.

Bronstein, Arthur J. "Let's Take Another Look at New York City Speech". The New York Fun-ics: The You Can Do Like New York City. Thomas, Charles K. "Standards of debate in New York City. which has been on the New York Times bestseller lists for almost four years, eight of them as No. 1, and has been published in 29 different foreign language versions.

Your New York Times Business Best Seller does for the work place what the previous workbook did for men and woman speaking at home. The conversation with her parents, Kids When You're All Adults, was awarded a prize for a Better Life.

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