How Deep is the Hudson RiverWhat's the Hudson River?
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NAWQA's long-term objectives are to describe the condition and development of the QoS of a large part of the country's surface and groundwater resource and to determine the main elements, physical and man, that influence the QoS of these sources. To achieve these objectives, the programme will provide a wide range of information on drinking and waste waters that will be of benefit to national, national and regional political decision-makers and management.
The NAWQA programme's key advantage is that it enables the information on drinking and waste waters to be integrated, which has been gathered at several levels. An essential part of the programme is the examination of the research group, which forms the basis for evaluation at country scale. These 60 research groups are hydrological studies covering parts of most of the large river basin and watercourse complex.
Covering areas from 1,200 to over 65,000 sq. m., these research entities account for 60 to 70 per cent of the nation's and the population's consumption of drinking waters supplied by the state. The Hudson River Basin was one of the first 20 NAWQA trial sessions chosen as part of the comprehensive monitoring programme in 1991.
Covering 13,400 km2, the Hudson River River basin is located almost entirely (93 percent) in New York State, but comprises parts of Vermont (3 percent), Massachusetts (2 percent), New Jersey (2 percent) and Connecticut (less than 1 percent). There are three parts of the pool, the Hudson River and the Mohawk River, as the hydrological properties of the areas are very different.
Top Hudson River has a catchment area of 4,590 sq m. Hudson River springs from the shores of the Clouds, a small pond in the Adirondack Mountains 4,322 ft above sealevel. This river runs south-south-east from the mountains through mainly woodland.
In Hudson Falls, the river runs through several affluents and has fallen to an altitude of about 200ft. The Hudson Falls to Albany are kept at a 12 foot deep river for business use. The river runs from Hudson Falls in the southern part through forests and farmlands to its junction with the Mohawk River near Troy.
Mohawk River dewaters 3500 sq. m. and is the biggest inflow to the Hudson River. Mohicans flow from north to south eastern through mainly forests and farmland (PDF, 1. 1MB), although they pass some industry areas eastward of Amsterdam. Lower Hudson River starts at Federal Dam near Troy, just down stream from the Mohawk.
All 154 mile of the lower Hudson River are intertidal and can be reversed four days a year. Albany's mean height is 2 ft above sealevel, and the mean reach at tides is about 4 ft. While the Hudson River is kept at a minimum 32 ft deep for business from Albany Harbour to New York City, it is sometimes up to 200 ft deep.
While the Hudson River runs 60 leagues southward through farmland (PDF, 1. 1MB), it crosses several areas of industry before flowing into the Hudson Highlands, where it runs through a deep, slender canal with cliffy shores and wooded mountains. It then widened near Haverstraw, reaching a width of 3. 5 nautical mile, before constricting as it led the Palisades rocks and continued southwards to New York's top port.
At the bottom of the pool is much more living, business and industry space (PDF, 1. 1MB) than the other part. The mean rainfall in the pool is 40 to 48 inch per year, the mean rainfall is 18 to 24 inch per year and the mean temperatures are 47 degree Farenheit, which varies greatly from the north to the south end of the pool.
About 50 per cent of the pool is wooded, 15 per cent is used for agriculture, 5 per cent for private, business or industry and 30 per cent for other purposes. There are parts of the Adirondack and Catskill Park as well as many smaller state reserves and historical places. The majority of large aquifer species in the tank are mainly superficial sediments of sandy and gravelly sediments.
Magmatic and metamorphous rocks run almost completely through the Hudson Riverbed. The main rocks in the Mohawk River basins are lime, slate and silt. All of the lower Hudson River Basin's basement is similar to the Mohawk basins, but comprises some areas of magmatic and metamorphous rocks and some sandstones.
Approximately 4.2 million persons were provided with drinking and drinking waters in 1985 (12% from groundwater and 88% from groundwater). Almost 60 per cent of the pumped pool waters are intended for professional or technical use. A number of Hudson River basins are contributing to New York's system of providing about 8 million inhabitants with drinking wells.
Chlorinated polyphenyls (PCB) contaminating soil sediment in the top Hudson River, followed by the emission of PCB into river waters and the enrichment of PCB in the nutrient path. EPA has identified part of the Hudson River as a Superfund site due to PCB pollution. Point- and non-point source of dangerous chemical products, includes municipal and rural run-off, in stretches of the Hudson and Mohawk River above and below.
One of the NAWQA's main objectives is to investigate the incidence and development of chemical contaminants. Point- and point-like nutritional resources, especially in secondary ponds with agricultural or fast growing cities. A further NAWQA programme objective is to investigate nutritious and sedimented water. Salt content of the lower Hudson River in relation to its use for water and game supplies and habitats.
Hudson River comprises 35 areas identified as important habitats, among them important fishing areas for fish on the eastern seaboard. Impact of the sour rains on badly puffered brooks and ponds in spring areas and tributaries. All of the lower Hudson River is part of the New York State estuary management programme. This river joins New York Harbour, which is part of the New York/New Jersey Estuary Management Programme (EPA's National Estuary Management Program).
The NAWQA programme aims to help us in identifying some of the contaminants that enter fragile estuariums. In 1991, the Hudson River Basin Investigation Link Commission was established. For more information on NAWQA related engineering and hydrological reporting, please contact: