Ganga River MapGanga River Map
Ganga is one of the most holy Hindus streams. In Hinduism she is revered as Ganga. Alaknanda ( right ) and Bhagirathi ( left ) meet, beginning of the passage itself. Headwaters and streams are marked in cursive; mountain, lake and city altitudes are given in brackets in meters.
The Ganges, after 250 km (155,343 miles) through its Himalayan valleys, rises from the Rishikesh hills and flows into the Gangetic Plain at the pilgrim city of Haridwar. At Haridwar, a causeway redirects part of its water into the Ganges Canal, which water ed the Doab Uttar Pradesh area, while the river, which was previously approximately southwestern, is now beginning to pass southeastwards through the North India plain.
Ganges follows an 800 km long archway through the towns of Kannauj, Farukhabad and Kanpur. On the way there is the Ramganga, which provides an avarage throughput of about 500 m3/s ( 18,000 cu ft/s) per year. Ganges follows Yamuna at Triveni Sangam in Allahabad, a sacred tributary of Hinduism.
The Yamuna at its junction is bigger than the Ganges and accounts for about 2,950 cubic meters per second (104,000 cu ft/s) or about 58. 5 percent of the mixed throughput. The river, which now runs eastwards, joins the Tamsa River (also known as the Ton), which runs just North of the Kaimur chain and provides an annual mean discharge of about 190 cubic metres per second (6,700 cu ft/s).
The Gomti River, which flows from the Tamsa to the southern part of the Himalayas, flows into the Tamsa. Gomti provides an avarage seasonal flux of approximately 234 m3/s ( 8,300 cu ft/s). The Ghaghara River (Karnali River), which also flows from the Himalayas of Nepal to the southern hemisphere, then flows into the valley. Ghaghara (Karnali) is the Ganges' biggest affluent with an mean seasonal discharge of about 2,990 m3/s ( 106,000 cu ft/s).
Following the Ghaghara (Karnali) junction, the Ganges is connected from the southern side by the Son River, which contributes approximately 1,000 m3/s ( 35,000 cu ft/s). Gandaki River, then Kosi River, flows into Nepal from the northern direction and contributes about 1,654 m3/s ( 58,400 cu ft/s) and 2,166 m3/s ( 76,500 cu ft/s) respectively.
Kosi is the third biggest river of the Ganges, after Ghaghara (Karnali) and Yamuna. Kosi melts with the Ganges at Kursela in Bihar. On the way between Allahabad and Malda, West Bengal, the Ganges crosses the cities of Chunar, Mirzapur, Varanasi, Ghazipur, Patna, Hajipur, Chapra, Bhagalpur, Ballia, Buxar, Simaria, Sultanganj and Saidpur.
In Bhagalpur the river begins to run south-southeast and in Pakur it begins its demoralization with the ramification of its first distributor, the Bh?girathi-Hooghly, which later becomes the Hooghly River. Shortly before the Bangladeshi frontier, the Farakka barrage controlled the Ganges River and diverted part of the waters into a feed channel connected to the Hooghly to keep it relatively mud-free.
Hooghly River is made up of the junction of the Bhagirathi River and the Jalangi River at Nabadwip, and Hooghly has a number of its own outflows. It is the biggest of the 541 km long Damodar River with a catchment area of 25,820 square km.
Hooghly River joins the Bay of Bengal at Sagar Island. The Hooghly River runs between Malda and the Bay of Bengal through the gateway to Murshidabad, Nabadwip, Calcutta and Howrah. Ganges River Basin, which is mainly made up of the large Ganges and Brahmaputra streams rich in sediments, is the biggest river basin in the entire Ganges region with an area of 59,000 square kilometres.
It is only the Amazon and Congo that have a higher mean runoff than the Ganges, Brahmaputra and Surma-Meghna river systems. Ganges Hydrology is very complex, especially in the Ganges Delta area. The results are various possibilities to define the length of the river, its runoff and the extent of its catchment area.
Ganges name is used for the river between the Bhagirathi and Alaknanda River junctions in the Himalayas and the Indian-Bangladeshi boundary, near the Farakka barrier and the first branch of the river. Length of the corridor is often described as just over 2,500 km (1,600 mi) long, about 2,505 km (1,557 mi), to 2,525 km (1,569 mi) or perhaps 2,550 km (1,580 mi).
It is believed in these cases that the river's spring is usually the spring of the Bhagirathi River, the Gangotri Glacier near Gomukh, and its estuary is the estuary of the Meghna River in the Bay of Bengal. Sometimes the Ganges spring is known as Haridwar, where its headwaters from the Himalayas flow into the Gangetic Plain.
The length of the passage is in some cases given for its Hooghly River distribution network, which is longer than its major Meghna River exit, resulting in a combined length of approximately 2,620 km (1,630 mi) from the Bhagirathi spring or 2,135 km (1,327 mi) from Haridwar to the Hooghly Muzzle.
Also, the unloading of the aisle is different depending on the sources. Often the introduction to the estuary of the Meghna River is described, whereby the Ganges is combined with the Brahmaputra and Meghna. Otherwise the mean yearly runoff of the Ganges, Brahmaputra and Meghna are given seperately, at about 16,650 m3/s ( 588,000 cu ft/s) for the Ganges, at about 19,820 m3/s ( 700,000 cu ft/s) for the Brahmaputra and at about 5,100 m3/s ( 180,000 cu ft/s) for the Meghna.
Bangladesh, cross the Ganges Padma River. This is one of the most important locations for the measurement of currents and runoff on the lower aisle. At the Hardinge Bridge in Bangladesh, the gangway's max flow rate was over 70,000 m3/s (2,500,000 cu ft/s). In the Ganges basins, the water circulation is determined by the southwest monsoon.
Consequently, the discharge in the Ganges is strongly dependent on the season. Many of the issues affecting terrestrial and aquatic resources develop in the area as a result of these pronounced variations in season. Drainage seasons are so severe that they can cause both droughts and flooding. The Ganges delta is where many large streams meet, converging and branching into a complex canal system.
Both the Ganges and Brahmaputra, the two biggest streams, divide into distribution canals, the biggest of which merges with other big streams before connecting themselves. In the course of the years, the Ganges Delta's streams have altered their course and sometimes significantly altered the channel system. At the end of the eighteenth centuries, the course of the lower Brahmaputra also underwent dramatic changes, changing its relation to the Ganges.
There was a great tide on the Teesta River in 1787, which was then a branch of the Ganges Padma River. In 1787, the tide of 1787 led to the Teesta experiencing a abrupt turn (repulsion), moving eastwards to join the Brahmaputra, and the Brahmaputra having to move its course southwards to cut a new canal.
Brahmaputra's new Brahmaputra major is known as the Jamuna River. The Brahmaputra River has been the eastern river since antiquity, past the cities of Mymensingh and Meghna River. Nowadays this canal is a small distributor, but keeps the name Brahmaputra, sometimes Alt-Brahmaputra.
In the late Harappan era, around 1900-1300 BC, the Harappan Estate expanded east from the Indus River basins to the Ganges Yamuna River Range, although none passed across the Ganges to colonize its east shore. Harappan civilization's decay in the early 2 st century BC marked the point at which the center of India's civilization moved from the Indus to the Ganges basins.
48 ] There may be connections between the late Harappan settlements of the Ganges basins and the archeological civilization known as "Cemetery H", the Indo-Aryan tribe, and Venetian times. Chromolithograph, "Indian Women Hovering Bulbs on the Ganges", by William Simpson, 1867. A caption is added to the photo: "He who die in the water of the Ganges receives heaven.
Pray that I may go from this corpse to your shores, drink your waters, roll in your ripples, come to you as an adult, wet with loving care. Don't be surprised... that this Ganges is really power, because isn't it the Supreme Shakti of the Eternal Shiva, in the shape of pure waters?
The Ganges, full of the compassionate wines of love, was sent by Shiva, the Lord of Lords, for the redemption of the earth. a full saucepan with plenty of kettle juice in her hands while a companion is holding a sunshade over her. Uttar Pradesh, As iconic art developed, carvers in India mainly produced motion pictures of the deity, packed with an escort and evocative for a king on her way to a river for bathing.
Since antiquity, the Ganges and its affluents, especially the Yamuna, have been used for watering. More than half of the Ganges-Brahmaputra-Meghna reservoir is readily accessible and has a massive hydropower capacity of 200,000 to 250,000MW. In 1999, India developed about 12% of the Ganges hydropower and only 1% of the Brahmaputra's enormous hydropower potentials.
Shah Tughlaq had many channels constructed, the longest of which, 240 km (150 miles), was constructed in 1356 on the Yamuna River. Known today as the Western Yamuna Channel, it has decayed and been repeatedly renovated. At the beginning of the seventeenth millennium, the Mogul Emperor Shah Jahan constructed an watering channel on the Yamuna River.
Until 1830 it was no longer used when it was re-opened as the East Yamuna Channel under UK supervision. This re-opened channel became the archetype for the Upper Ganges Channel and all other channel designs. It was not until 1844, when a new governor general, Lord Hardinge, was named, that officials returned their zeal and money to the Ganges Channel scheme.
Under Cautley' s watch, sewer building was now in full progress. 560 km long channel with a further 480 km of secondary canals, which finally extend between the Hardwar heads and divide into two arms below Aligarh, and its two confluence with the Yamuna (Jumna in map) main stream in Etawah and the Ganges in Kanpur (Cawnpore in map).
Ganges Channel, which involved a £2.15 million investment, was formally opened by Lord Dalhousie in 1854. This was the biggest channel ever tried in the history of the planet, five as long as all the major Lombardy and Egyptian water pipelines combined, and a third longer than even the biggest US navigational channel, the Pennsylvania Channel.
Farakka's large curtain fire was opened on 21 April 1975 near the point where the river's principal stream to Bangladesh flows and the Hooghly River (also known as Bhagirathi) in West Bengal passes Calcutta. The curtain fire, which supplies the Hooghly junction of the river through a 42 km long inflow channel, and its river basin control have long been a cause of conflict with Bangladesh.
96 ] The Indo-Bangladesh Ganges Agreement, concluded in December 1996, dealt with some of the problems of the distribution of drinking oil between India and Bangladesh. Who sells Ganges drinking bins, Haridwar. Humans taking a bath and doing laundry in the Ganges in Varanasi. Following the crossing of Varanasi and the receipt of 32 untreated wastewater flows from the town, the faecal coliform concentrations in the river bodies increase from 60,000 to 1.5 million, with peaks of 100 million per 100 ml noticed.
Ganga's action plan, which was accepted with great passion and urgency, was postponed by two years. Municipal and industry waste release in the river was not fully monitored. Drainage through sewerage and sewerage was not sufficiently redirected. There was very little made available for official toilets, and the open emptying of human leaks went on along the river bank.
Waterborne and enteral illnesses - such as gastro-intestinal disorders, osteoarthritis, cholera, Ruhr, hepatitis A and typhus - are prevalent among those who use the river's river basin for swimming, dishwashing and tooth cleaning, at an annual rate of 66%. "Ganga Action Plan, generally known as GAP, was started on 14 June 1985 in the sacred town of Banares (Varanasi) by Prime Minister Rajiv Gandhi in a dramatic way, who promised: "We will see that the Ganga river becomes clear again.
The declared mission was to enhance freshwater management, ensure safety swimming on the 2,525 kilometres from the source of the Ganges in the Himalayas to the Bay of Bengal, and make freshwater drinkable in important pilgrimage and city centre on the shore. Even though some improvement has been made to the Ganges waters, many say that the CAP was a great fail.
"The Ministry of Environment and Forests, Government of India, started the Ganga Action Plan, an environment protection program to enhance the river waters in February 1985. This was the biggest individual experiment to rehabilitate a contaminated river in the whole wide sense of the word and has not been successful in avoiding pollutant loads and improving the river's freshwater status.
If the Ganga Action Plan fails, it can be directly related to urban development without properly interpreting the interaction between people and the world. Therefore, the biography of chosen Ganga River research projects is an essential first steps to preserve and maintain the Ganga River eco-system in the near term. "Salman & Uprety (2002, p. 172, 178-87, 387-91) Treaty between the Government of the Republic of India and the Government of the People's Republic of Bangladesh on the division of Ganga/Ganges water in Farakka.
"In order to alleviate groundwater contamination in one of Asia's largest watercourses, the Indian government launched the Ganga Action Plan in 1985. Aim of this central financed system was to purify the wastewater of all big cities along the corridor and to cut the river contamination by at least 75%.
Ganga's action plan was based on the water prevention and control law of 1974, which was in place but poorly implemented. In 2000, a Ganga Action Plan coalition auditor report restricted progress in achieving wastewater objectives. Only 73% of the towns along the corridor filed wastewater plant design proposals, of which only 54% were found satisfactory by the public authority.
However, not all towns report how much wastewater has been processed and many continue to introduce untreated wastewater into the river. Following 15 years of operation, the auditor assessed that the Ganga Action Plan had reached only 14% of the expected wastewater processing capability. However, the effects of this disaster on the environment were further aggravated by the withdrawal of large amounts of irrigated groundwater from the Ganges, which compensated for all the benefits of reducing the volume of wastewaters.
Returned on April 27, 2011. Ganges River. 2011. Brought back on April 23, 2011. Flows of the world: a source book of socio, geographic and ecological sources. Brought back on April 23, 2011. Archives from the source (PDF) on 4 May 2011. Returned on May 6, 2011. Brought back on April 23, 2011.
"Ganges Water Machine." Eric Servat ; Commission internationale de l'AISH sur les systèmes des ressources en eau (2002). Brought back on April 18, 2011. Returned on March 12, 2014. Returned on March 12, 2014. Returned on March 12, 2014. Returned on March 12, 2014. Returned on March 12, 2014. Returned on March 12, 2014. Returned on March 12, 2014. Returned on March 12, 2014.
Returned on March 12, 2014. I' m rice in shallow waters. Brought back on April 23, 2011. Brahmaputra River. 2011. Returned on April 25, 2011. Returned on April 25, 2011. Returned on September 7, 2008. "Aleksander and the Ganges." J. C. Rodda, Lucio Ubertini, Association internationale des sciences hydrologiques, Commission internationale de l'AISH sur les systèmes hydrologiques, Consiglio national de la recherche (Italien).
aquatic?.. Returned on May 10, 2013. Returned on May 10, 2013. Returned on May 10, 2013. "Says the Ganges War: "The Ganges War: The Ganges War. Ministry of Watersources of the Indian Government. Archives from the Genuine (PDF) on 8 October 2011. Returned on April 27, 2011. Report of the Unnao Municipality Water/Groundwater Protection Commission of Uttar Pradesh by the Tannery of Uttar (PDF).
Brought back on April 23, 2014. Sushovan Sircar (11 March 2014). "Stroll along the Hooghly." Returned on April 24, 2014. "Money flows for the shore project." Returned on April 24, 2014. Ganga Trail is scheduled to be completed in three years. April 22, 2014. Returned on April 24, 2014. KDA river bank river bank redevelopment project".
Returned on May 6, 2011. Returned on May 6, 2011. Returned on May 6, 2011. "Bio-diversity of fresh water species in the Ganga River (India): patterns, threat and preservation perspectives". Glyphis gingangeticus, Gangeshai. Returned on May 7, 2011. Returned on September 12, 2017. Iverson, Rhodin, Shaffer and Bour (2014).
Ganges River dolphin declared India's national aquatic animal. Archives from the orginal on 2 September 2011. Returned on May 6, 2011. Ganges River Delphin. wwf.panda.org. Returned on July 4, 2012. Hrbek, Tomas; Da Silva, Vera Maria Ferreira; Dutra, Nicole; Gravena, Waleska; Martin, Anthony R.; Farias, Izeni Pires (22 January 2014).
Turvey, Samuel T., ed. "A new species of Brazilian river dolphin or... Brought back on November 28, 2010. Brought back on November 28, 2010. Effects of climatic changes on the river basin hydrology of the Indus, Ganges and Brahmaputra: an overview of the available scientific papers. Interna-tional Gazette for Aquatic Resource Planning, 31(2), 201-218.
Cleaner ganga. Returned on July 16, 2010. "World' s Dirty Rivers". Brought back on May 3, 2010. Akanksha Jain (April 23, 2014). "drawing a Ganga contamination monitoring scheme for factories." Returned on April 24, 2014. It'?s a bit "Ganga can't stand any more abuse". Journey of the River Ganga, from Pure to the Dirtiest River in the World -". m.indiatvnews.com.
World Bank loan India $1 billion for the rehabilitation of the Ganges River". Brought back on November 28, 2010. Namami Ganga Project Receives 2037 Croeres. Returned on July 10, 2014. Trivedi, Anupam; Jagati, Kamal (March 22, 2017). "The Uttarakhand HCG Ganga, Yamuna alive, gives them the right to live." Returned on April 5, 2017. Sarkar, Dipankar (24 March 2017).
"Right of the river, difficult to enforce." Ghosh, Shibani (March 27, 2017). "River as being". Goswami, Urmi (25 March 2017). "Could the grant of claims for river resources like the Ganga alter the local conditions? Bhaskar, B. R. P. (24 March 2017). "Through the creation of Ganga, Yamuna Living Entities, the Supreme Court unknowingly opened the door for river pollution survivors to file claims for damages?
How India's success is destroying its Holy River. How India's success is destroying its Holy River. plunder the ganga shameless. June 16, 2011. Abraham, Wolf-Rainer (2011). "Mega-cities as pathogenic bacteria in rivers and their fate in rivers" (PDF). 1-13 2011 (798292). doi:10.1155/2011/798292. "Geo-politics, waters and developments in South Asia: co-operative developments in the Ganges-Brahmaputra Delta".
Archeological geography of the Ganga plain: Lower and middle ganga. Nepal -India Nepal Relationship: Returned on April 27, 2011. "Rehabilitation of river habitats for the conservation of fish biodiversity in monsoonal Asia" (PDF). Violence and cooperation in international river basins. Major Rivers: Geo-morphology and River Governance. Brought back on April 23, 2011. Indian hydroplogy and aquatic resource.
Ganga, a science trial. "India's aquatic resources" (PDF). Brought back on October 13, 2013. Recirculation of corridor water: impact on the environment and its outcomes. Hydroscience? Wallingford, Oxfordshire, Großbritannien : Association internationale des sciences hydrologiques, Commission internationale des systèmes hydrologiques de l'AISH : Violence and co-operation on the South Asian river system: a judicial outlook (PDF).
Returned on April 27, 2011. 21 st centuries: the fall of the river Ganga. Walking along the corridor. Ganga channel. An essay on the leaders of the Ganga of Jumna Channels, northwestern province. Diary of a trip through a part of the snow-covered mountains of the Himalayas and to the springs of the Jumna and Ganga River.
A report about the fish that occur in the river Ganges and its twigs. Gangma Ma: A journey of the pilgrim to the spring on YouTube a film documenting the Ganga from the mouths to the spring in the Himalayas. On YouTube, CNN-IBN Live, May 5, 2012. It is now confirmed by science; Ganga waters are "holy"!