Amazon River MapMap of the Amazon River
For almost a hundred years, the spring area of the Apurímac River on the Nevado Mismi was regarded as the most remote spring of the Amazon, until a survey found the Cordillera Rumi Cruz at the spring area of the Mantaro River in Peru in 2014. The Mantaro and Apurímac join with other affluents to create the Ucayali River, which in turn joins the Marañón River downstream of Iquitos, Peru, to create what other lands than Brazil regard as the Amazon's principal tribe.
Brazilian people call this section the Solimões River above its tributary with the Rio Negro to create what the people of Brazil call the Amazon at the meeting of waters (Portuguese: Águas Encontro) in Manaus, the biggest town of the river. Originally known to Europeans as Marañón, the river is still known as the Marañón in Peru.
Later it became known in Hispanic and Portugese as Rio Amazonas or in English as Amazonas. Rio Amazonas was given its name after local soldiers assaulted a 1600th c. exploration by Francisco de Orellana. Female leaders guided the fighters who reminded de Orellana of the mythic Amazon fighters of Greek civilization in ancient Greece.
While what many archeologists call the defining phase, Amazonia communities were profoundly engaged in the development of the South American highlands agricultural system. Conqueror Vicente Yáñez Pinzón of Spain was the first recorded Spaniard to sailed up the Amazon in March 1500. Francisco de Orellana, another Spaniard who discovered Spain, was the first in Europe to go from the source of the river basin in the Andes to the estuary of the river.
On this voyage Orellana named some of the tributaries of the Amazon such as Rio Negro, Napo and Jurua. Its name Amazonas comes from the local soldiers who invaded this mission, mostly females, who remembered De Orellana as the mythic Amazon Wars of Greek civilization.
The Coca River flows into the Napo River (now Puerto Francisco de Orellana) after 170 kilometers; the celebration stops for a few short days to construct a river upstream from this junction. The Orellana volunteered and was instructed to join the Napo River, then known as the Río de la Canela ("Cinnamon River"), and to come back with a meal for the festival.
On the basis of information obtained from a prisoner chieftain by the name of Delicola, they anticipated that within a few day they would find nourishment downstream by going up another river to the south. On the Napo River, after a 600 km drive, they arrived at another large river junction, at a point near today's Iquitos, and then followed the Amazon, today's Solimões, for another 1,200 km to its junction with the Rio Negro (at today's Manaus), which they arrived on 3 June 1542.
At the Nhamunda River, a creek of the Amazon Sea below Manaus, Orellana's side had a bitter fight with fighters who, they said, were lead by bitter fighters who killed the men with legs when they tried to withdraw. Orellana's men began to call the wives Amazons, a hint at the tribes of woman soldiers from ancient Greece.
Others related plant containing chinnamon (from the Lauraceae family) are quite widespread in this part of the Amazon region and Pizarro has probably seen some of them. On August 24, 1542, the expansion arrived at the estuary of the Amazon and demonstrated the practicality of navigating the Great River. The year 1560 could have been another Spaniard conqueror, Lope de Aguirre, who made the second departure of the Amazon.
It is not clear to the historian whether the river it went down was the Amazon or the Orinoco River, which is more or less running more or less parallelly to the Amazon further south. Between 1648 and 1652, António Raposo Tavares, a portugese band leader from Brazil, conducted an outreach from São Paulo over land to the estuary of the Amazon, which examined many of its tributary rivers, among them the Rio Negro, and covered a stretch of more than 10,000 km.
A number of settlement colonies and religions have been built on the shores of the main streams and affluents in present-day Brazil, Ecuador, Bolivia, Colombia, Peru and Venezuela to engage in trading, slavery and evangelism among the tribal people of the huge rain forest, such as the Urarina. The early scholarly, geological and flora research of the Amazon River and the Amazon basins took place from the eighteenth to the first half of the nineteenth cent.
In 1850, the entire populace of the Amazonian part of the Amazon was perhaps 300,000, of which about two third were Europeans and servants, the servants about 25,000. Pará (today Belém), the most important trading centre of the Amazon in Brazil, had 10,000 to 12,000 residents, inclusive of slave. Manáos, today Manaus, at the estuary of the Rio Negro, had between 1,000 and 1,500 people.
In the beginning, shipping was mainly restricted to the major river, and even in 1857 a change in the Intergovernmental Treaty only required the enterprise to operate a single connection per month between Pará and Manaus, with steamships of 200 tonnes loading volume, a second line for six cruises per year between Manaus and Tabatinga and a third, two cruises per months between Pará and Cametá.
It was a successful project that highlighted the potential for Amazon commercial exploration and a second enterprise soon opened trade in Madeira, Purús and Negro; a third built a line between Pará and Manaus; and a forth found it worthwhile to travel through some of the smaller creeks.
During the same timeframe, the Amazonas Company expanded its fleets. In the meantime, privately owned and operated small steamships on the river and on many of its creeks. The Brazilian authorities, continually pushed by the naval forces and the lands surrounding the Amazon region, especially Peru, ordered the opening of the Amazon to all lands on 31 July 1867, but restricted them to certain points:
Tabatina - on the Amazon; Cametá - on the Tocantins; Santarém - on the Tapajós; Borba - on Madeira and Manaus - on the Rio Negro. Brazil's edict came into force on September 7, 1867. The river was traded locally by the British followers of the Amazonas Company - the Amazonas Steam Navigation Company - and by many small steamers owned by businesses and businesses in the natural caoutchouc business that navigated the Negro, Madeira, Purús and many other affluents, such as the Marañón, to such remote harbours as Nauta, Peru.
At the beginning of the 19th and beginning of the 19th centuries, the Amazon basin's India natural caoutchouc imports, cocoa-bean, Brazil nut and some other low importance commodities such as furs and tropical forests (resins, bark, wooven Hammocks, valuable birds' nibs, living animals) and extracts such as wood and bull.
Ever since colonisation, the part of the Amazon River in Portugal has been largely uncultivated by farming and inhabited by tribal peoples who have been surviving the advent of Europe's illness. More than four hundred years after the Amazon River was discovered in Europe, the entire area under cultivation in its basins was probably less than 65 km2, with the exception of the confined and coarsely farmed areas between the hills at its extremes.
This extension was originally designed by Getúlio Vargas, and the request for gum from the Allied armed services during the Second World War made it possible to finance the advance. The Mataro and Apurimac are the spring streams. For almost a hundred years, the most remote spring of the Amazon was believed to have been the dewatering of the Apurímac River.
Recent publications include 1996, 2001, 2007, and 2008, where various writers identify the snow-capped Nevado Mismi summit, about 160 km western of Lake Titicaca and 700 km south-east of Lima, as the most remote well.
The Apurímac then connects with the River Mantaro to the Ene, which connects with the River Perne to the Riverambo, which connects with the Urubamba River to the Ucayali. When Apurímac and Ucayali meet, the river exits the Andes and is encircled by a meadow.
The wooded shores lie just above the sea from this point to the junction of the Ucayali and Marañón rivers, about 1,600 km long before the river reaches its peak. Only a few mounds break the low river shores and the river flows into the vast Amazon rain forest.
Even though the Ucayali - Maranón River is the point where most geographicalists set the beginning of the Amazon River itself, the river in Brazil is referred to here as Solimões the Aguas. Rivers and flooded areas in Brazil, Peru, Ecuador, Colombia and Venezuela, whose water flows into the Solimões and their affluents, are known as the "Upper Amazon".
Brazil and Peru and is part of the Colombian-Peru divide. In Colombia, Ecuador and Peru there are a number of important affluents, some of which run into the Marañón and Ucayali and others directly into the Amazon. Among these are the Putumayo, Caquetá, Vaupés, Guainía, Morona, Pastaza, Nucuray, Urituyacu, Chambira, Tigre, Nanay, Napo and Huallaga Creeks.
In some places the river is divided into several, often very long passages with inner and side passages, all of which are linked by a complex system of pristine passages that cut the low, shallow Ygapó countries, which never lie more than 5 meters above the low river, into many islets. Between the city of Canaria on the large curve of the Amazon to the Negro, wide stretches of countryside have been flooded, above which only the top of the dark forest appears.
Close to the estuary of the Rio Negro to Serpa, almost opposite the river Madeira, the shores of the Amazon are low until they approach Manaus and become gentle mounds. Lower Amazon starts where the dark colored water of Rio Negro meets the sand-colored Rio Solimões, and these bodies of water run side by side for over 6 km without intermixing.
In Óbidos, a steep 17 metre above the river is supported by low hill. At one time, the lower Amazon seemed to have been a bay of the Atlantic Ocean, the sea of which swept around the rocks at Óbidos. Just about ten per cent of the Amazon's river flows down river from Óbidos, very little of it from the north side of the valleys.
Above the urban area of Óbidos, the Amazon River basins catchment area is approximately 5,000,000 km2, including only approximately 1,000,000 km2 (approximately 20%), excluding the 1,400,000 km2 of the Tocantine basins. Tocantins River flows into the south part of the Amazon River.
The northern shore of the lower course of the river is made up of a row of precipitous, tabular mounds that stretch for about 240 kilometers from the estuary of the Xingu to Monte Alegre. Those mounds are separated into a kind of patio that is located between them and the river.
The southern shore, above the Xingu, stretches along a row of low cliffs that border the meadow, almost to Santarém in a row of soft bends, before turning southwestward and merging with the lower Tapajós into the cliffs that make up the terraced edge of the Tapajós rivervale.
Belem is the metropolis and the harbour at the river's estuary into the Atlantic Ocean. It is controversial to define exactly where the estuary of the Amazon is and how broad it is because of the specific geographical features of the area. Pará and Amazon are linked by a number of canals named Breves and Marajó, the biggest river and marine isle in the whole in between.
Including the Pará River and the sea front of the Marajó Islands, the Amazon delta is about 325 kilometers across. 40 ] In this case, the width of the river delta is usually determined from Cabo Norte, the promontory just south of Pracuúba in the state of Amapá, Brazil, to Ponta da Tijoca near the city of Curuçá in the state of Pará.
If the Pará river delta, from the Araguari to Ponta do Navio on the north shore of Marajó, were not so much a conservation measure, the delta of the Amazon would still have a width of over 180km. Looking only at the river's principal canal, between the isles of Curuá (state of Amapá) and Jurupari (state of Pará), the width drops to about 15km.
Whilst the discussion about whether the Amazon or the Nile is the longest river in the word has lasted for many years, the historical agreement of the geographical authority has been to consider the Amazon as the second longest river in the word, with the Nile being the longest. But the Amazon was surveyed by various geography surveyors between 6,259 and 6,992 kilometers (3,889 and 4,345 miles).
The Nile should be between 5,499 and 6,690 kilometers (3,417 and 4,157 miles). Situated in the Amazon River valley, the biggest in the whole of South America, it occupies about 40% of South America, an area of about 7,050,000 km2 (2,722,020 km2). The Casiquiare Channel is a river that connects the Amazon and Orinoco reservoir.
Casiquiare is a river distributor of the Orinoco river, which joins the Rio Negro to the south and the Amazon. Casiquiare is the world' s biggest river, connecting two large river regimes, a so-called bi-furcation. The Amazon River is not flooded by all its affluents at the same hour of the year.
In many sectors, floods start in November and could increase further by June. Rio Negro's ascent begins in February or March and begins in June. Madeira River climbs and drops two month sooner than the remainder of the Amazon. It is a major river that can be navigated by large sea-going vessels to Manaus, 1,500 kilometers upstream from the estuary.
Small river boats can travel 780 kilometers higher up to Achual Point. In the Miocene period between the 11th and 11th centuries, the Amazon was a trans-continental river. Over a third of all known rainforest types in the whole wide Amazon , a huge rainforest and river basins with an area of more than 5,400,000 sqm.
The Amazon River basins currently contain over 3,000 different types of aquatic life, more of which are spotted every year. 56 ] In additon to the thousand of different types of fishing, the river helps shrimps, seaweed and tortoises. Fresh water germs are generally not very well known, even less so for an untouched eco-system like the Amazon.
Recently, the metagenomic has provided an answer to the type of microbe that inhabits the river. The most important germs in the Amazon are Actinobacteria, Alphaproteobacteria, Betaproteobacteria, Gammaproteobacteria and Crenarchaeota. There are over 1,100 affluents in the Amazon, 12 of which are over 1,500 kilometers long. Amazon.
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